General Information, Preface and Acknowledgements

About the Project

  • Dictionary Entries: 3373
  • Corpus Size: 38091 words / 942 texts
  • Literature Database: 4880 datasets

Maps of (Ancient) Anatolia

Anatolia - Empire Period
Anatolia - Neo-Hittite Period and Beyond

Module 1: Synchronic Lexicon of Cuneiform Luwian, Carian and Sidetic

Prof. Dr. Jared Miller, Dr. Anja Busse, Dr. Zsolt Simon

This module prepares and contributes to the synchronic dictionaries of three Anatolian languages and collects other miscellaneous forms. The scope of the dictionary consists of the lexemes of the individual languages. However, purely onomastic material has been taken into account only for the purpose of reconstructing otherwise unattested lexemes. The languages and categories are as follows:

1. Luwian in cuneiform transmission. This includes several corpora: traditionally, “Cuneiform Luwian” refers to Luwian words in texts written in Luwian or in Hittite, but this is linguistically inadequate, since the language and origin of (assumed) Luwian words in Hittite clauses and phrases requires a linguistic evaluation. This applies also to the group of the so-called Glossenkeilwörter. Additionally, Luwian words also appear in or can be reconstructed from other cuneiform corpora (Luwian material in cuneiform transmission [including personal names] is currently attested from the 20/19th c. until the 6th c. BCE). Thus, the following sub-categories are distinguished in the present dictionary:

  1. Cuneiform Luwian: words in Luwian clauses and phrases (in collaboration with Modul 2).
  2. Luwian in Hittite transmission: words in Hittite clauses and phrases that have been identified as Luwianisms either in the secondary literature or here, but are never marked with a Glossenkeil (in collaboration with Modul 2).
  3. Glossenkeilwörter: words that appear at least once with the so-called gloss marker (= Glossenkeil) in Hittite texts (in collaboration with Modul 2).
  4. Luwian in Old Assyrian transmission: Luwian words that can be reconstructed from Anatolian names attested in Old Assyrian texts as well as Luwian words attested there directly.
  5. Luwian in Other Transmission: (reconstructed) Luwian words from any cuneiform transmission beyond the sub-categories above.The vocabulary of Luwian in hieroglyphic transmission is prepared in Module 2.

2. Carian (8th / 7th ‒ 4th / 3rd c. BCE, Western Anatolia and Egypt).

3. Sidetic (4th ‒ 3rd c. BCE, Southern Anatolia).


  1. the material of the only marginally known members of the Anatolian branch (such as “Lycaonian”) and of those varieties that cannot be properly classified (e.g., “Arzawa Luwic”);
  2. the loanwords in the neighbouring Semitic, Indo-European, and other languages, following the established tradition of Hittite etymological dictionaries.
Every lemma provides an overview of the attestations followed by a philological, grammatical, and (if applicable) etymological analysis. Contexts of attestation are either included in the lemma or can be accessed via a hyperlink. The results of Module 1 are part of the basis of the Proto-Anatolian reconstruction prepared in Module 2.

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Module 2: Synchronic Lexicon of Cuneiform Luwian, Hieroglyphic Luwian, Palaic, Lycian, Lydian and Pisidian, and reconstructed *Proto-Anatolian

Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Rieken, Dr. Anna Henriette Bauer, Dr. David Sasseville, in collaboration with Dr. habil. Ilya Yakubovich

Module 2 is responsible for two aspects within the eDiAna project: synchronic lexicography, and Proto-Anatolian reconstruction. Within the lexicography part, we compile the synchronic dictionaries for the following Anatolian languages attested in the 2nd and 1st millennium B.C.E. and the first two centuries C.E.:

  • Cuneiform Luwian (in collaboration with Module 1)
    19th to 12th century B.C.E., Central Anatolia
  • Hieroglyphic Luwian
    14th/13th to 7th century B.C.E., Anatolia and Northern Syria
  • Lycian
    5th and 4th century B.C.E., South-Western Anatolia
  • Lydian
    7th to 4th century B.C.E., Western Anatolia
  • Pisidian
    1st and 2nd century C.E., Southern Anatolia

On the basis of the synchronic dictionaries compiled by Modules 1 and 2, we reconstruct Proto-Anatolian stems for those lemmata that occur in more than one of the ancient Anatolian languages and/or have cognates in any of the other Indo-European languages.

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Module 3: Proto-Indo-European Etymology of the minor Anatolian Corpus Languages

Prof. Dr. Olav Hackstein, Dr. Andreas Opfermann, PD Dr. Thomas Steer

The aim of Module 3 is to provide a PIE etymology for the stems and roots that are continued in the minor Anatolian languages. Based on the inner-Anatolian reconstruction given by Module 2, we investigate the non-Anatolian Indo-European languages in search for cognates to reconstruct a common protoform.

By doing so, we focus, among others, on the following IE language branches and individual languages:

  • Indo-Iranian (Vedic, Sanskrit; Avestan, Old Persian, etc.)
  • Greek (Mycenaean, Ancient Greek)
  • Armenian
  • Italic (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.)
  • Celtic (Irish, Welsh, Breton, etc.)
  • Germanic (Gothic, Old Norse, Old English, Old High German, etc.)
  • Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian, Old Prussian)
  • Slavic (Old Church Slavonic, Russian, Bulgarian, Czech, etc.)
  • Tocharian (Tocharian A and B)
  • Albanian

On the basis of the etymological dictionaries of these languages, articles, monographs, and further literature we then compile our dictionary entries. They usually consist of a list of words and forms that are cognate with the Anatolian material discussed by Module 2, followed by some remarks on the PIE semantics, and a morphological discussion dealing with the PIE root and derivational processes involved. If it is possible to reconstruct related PIE phraseology or syntax, this is added in the last section of the lemma.

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Digital Development

Christiane Bayer M.A., in collaboration with Dr. Tobias Englmeier and Dr. Markus Frank

This project attempts to do justice to the new opportunities of the Digital Humanities: as our ultimate objective, we regard a philological-etymological dictionary that is convenient to operate and adjustable to the individual requirements.

The entire project (under CC license) is hosted on the servers of the IT Group for the Humanities-Department of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. In the first phase of the project, Dr. Markus Frank developed the conception, designed the database (MySQL) and programmed the prototype of eDiAna. The second project phase (November 2018 to January 2022) fell under the responsibility of Christiane Bayer, who further developed the existing structure successively and adapted it to the data, ensuring usability. Special thanks are due to Dr. Tobias Englmeier and the IT Group for the Humanities at LMU (under the direction of Dr. Christian Riepl) for their support in programming, consulting and development.

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eDiAna Conception (Dr. Markus Frank)

Editorial Acknowledgements

The eDiAna project benefited from the cooperation with Birgit Christiansen, J. David Hawkins, and Annick Payne at the stage of compiling the text corpora (details). H. Craig Melchert contributed to the project not only through helpful advice at every stage of its implementation but also through sharing several preprint versions of his Dictionary of Cuneiform Luwian (DCL). The eDiAna workshop Current Research on Lycian (Munich, 16-17 February 2017) advanced the study of the Lycian lexicon for the benefit of the project. In addition, our work was facilitated through cooperation with several partner projects, the list of which is given immediately below.

The Editors

Institution/Description Link
IT-Group for the Humanities (LMU).
Hethitologie-Portal Mainz: HPM.
Annotated Corpus of Luwian Texts
Project of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Principal Investigator: Dr. habil. Ilya Yakubovich.
Das Corpus der hethitischen Festrituale: staatliche Verwaltung des Kulturwesens im spätbronzezeitlichen Anatolien
Project of the Mainz Academy of Sciences and Literature.
Principal Investigartors: Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Rieken and Prof. Dr. Daniel Schwemer.
Luwili: Luwian Religious Discourse between Anatolia and Syria
Project of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (France) and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany).
Principal Investigators: Dr. habil. Alice Mouton and Dr. habil. Ilya Yakubovich.
Los dialectos lúvicos del grupo anatolio en su contexto lingüístico, geográfico e histórico (2016–2018) and Los dialectos lúvicos del grupo anatolio: escritura, gramática, onomástica, léxico (2019–2022).
Prof. Dr. Ignacio Javier Adiego Lajara, Dr. Mariona Vernet Pons, and Dr. José Virgilio García Trabazo